World Economic Forum and the management consulting firm AT Kearney (AT Kearney) had last year issued a “” future of manufacturing “ready status report”, by evaluation of 59 indicators, the current 100 countries and economies were assessed. Report offers two main evaluation criteria, can objectively reflect the contest between countries, countries exactly how the manufacturing level, preparation is sufficient: First, the country’s readiness to respond to future development of the manufacturing sector (including the current manufacturing structure ). Key indicators include the complexity of the economic scale. Second, drivers affecting the development of the manufacturing sector, and given different weights. Key indicators including technology and innovation, human capital, global trade and investment, institutional framework, sustainable resource, demand environment. We have selected for you from the reports of the national high score a few representative (from the United States, Europe and Asia), one by one to introduce you to its manufacturing development status.
United States: US manufacturing scale the world’s second, in 2016 the market value added (MVA) approaching 20 CONTROL ENGINEERING China Copyright , $ 800 billion CONTROL ENGINEERING China Copyright , proportion of gross domestic product (GDP) of 12%, equivalent to 16% of global manufacturing value added. American world famous for its innovative ability, belongs to the first echelon of emerging industrial technology 4.0, a major breakthrough. On the other drivers of the United States in addition to sustainable resource and institutional framework of living in the top five ranking score. However, in the past 20 years, the United States declining competitiveness, attractiveness as a manufacturing destination suffered a serious challenge. In 2014, the United States issued a “speed up the United States advanced manufacturing” report, hopes to revive the manufacturing sector has become an important strategic fulcrum of the traditional manufacturing economy. 2017 US tax reform the corporate tax from 35% to 21% to attract businesses will move back to the United States some production lines again. However, because of immigration policies and free trade agreements and regulatory uncertainty still exists , this effect is not obvious. Bloomberg in October 2019 had criticized the government’s policy of trade protectionism Trump disrupted the company’s supply chain, but lead systemManufacturing accounts for the decline in the proportion of the US economy. 2019 second quarter, the manufacturing industry accounted for 11% of GDP, down from 11.3% in 2018, fell to its lowest level since 1947. Germany: Germany has the world’s fourth largest manufacturing sector in the production of the indicators are among the best drivers, the ranks of the top ten drivers on technology and innovation, human capital, global trade and investment and demand environment. Germany launched the “Industry 4.0” concept in 2011, first proposed to raise the digitalization and networking level products, value chains and business models in order to promote change digital manufacturing, which is considered the fourth industrial revolution pioneer of the global commons One. German Federal Ministry of Education and Research, also in 2015 launched the “Industry 4.0: from research to business landing” program to help SMEs solve problems of industrial application 4.0 in actual production, to promote the effective implementation of the strategy. But it is worth mentioning that advantage does not make the manufacturing level above the impact of the global economic environment in Germany prevail. Since more than half of German manufactured goods are for export, and the German economic structure is a single, three pillar industries in addition to the car, the other two pillars (machinery manufacturing, chemical industry) to a large extent linked to the automobile industry , so this year in the automotive industry structural adjustment, multiple factors of Europe and other global trade disputes with the uncertainty caused by the British off under the operating conditions of the German manufacturing sector has fallen into the worst situation since the global financial crisis. UK: In recent decades, the share of manufacturing in the UK economy has been on a steady decline, from 25% down to 70 years of the last century and now less than 10%. UK manufacturing facilities, production capacity, strength and employment opportunities is with the downturn in the economy and the manufacturing sector accounted for the decline. However, the manufacturing sector in the UK economy still plays a very important role, 66% of the national R & D funding is used in manufacturing CONTROL ENGINEERING China Copyright , the pay levels of employees in the manufacturing sector is also higher than the national average level. 2019 release of the British manufacturing industry annual report shows that British manufacturers have a strong confidence in the viability of the manufacturing sector, no matter how future changes in the international economic situation, 77% of manufacturers believe that the British have enough strength to industrial strain. Although manufacturing structure inferior to similar leading the country, but the British have a strong technologyPlatform and ability to innovate, thereby enabling the high-tech aerospace and pharmaceutical manufacturing industries occupy a favorable position. British government to intervene in the past few guiding industry. However, in 2016, the British government launched the “2050 British industrial strategy” designed to boost the manufacturing sector. The strategy proposed, the manufacturing sector is not “carried out after manufacture and sale” in the traditional sense, but a “service plus remanufacturing (production-centered value chain)”, which aims to promote the integration of manufacturing and services, to enhance the number of highly skilled workers . In late 2017, the British government has released a white paper industry strategy, put forward “to lead Britain into the forefront of artificial intelligence and data revolution” strategic objective, through the establishment of partnerships between industry trading business and government to support the industry through the Artificial Intelligence and data analysis techniques to improve productivity. France: French manufacturing scale ranked 8th in the world, but the manufacturing sector contribution to GDP has decreased, reduced by half compared with 1970, currently accounts for about 10% of gross domestic product. French performance in the production of all the drivers are very good, the indicators in the individual countries are all ranked in the first sequence, and especially prominent in global trade and investment, the environment and the needs of sustainable resources. French manufacturing is a leader in the field of aviation, high-speed rail, high-end electrical equipment, the main challenge is to continue to strengthen the manufacturing industry structure. In 2013, the French government launched a 10-year “new industrial French” strategy, hoping to solve the energy, the digital revolution and economic life of the three major problem, unmanned vehicles, robots, new high-speed rail and other 34 priority projects, hopes innovation reshape French industrial strength. However, this strategy because the main direction is not clear, leading to fragmentation of resources, for which the French government to the original strategy was adjusted in April 2015, proposed a “new industrial look” (The New Face of Industry) program, intended to optimize the industrial layout of the development, follow the example of German industry 4.0, speed up industrial revival. Japan: Japan’s manufacturing sector is currently ranked third in the world, accounting for global manufacturing value added in the range of 9%. China’s total, the United States, and Japan accounted for nearly half of global manufacturing value added. Due to the complexity of consumer groups, strong corporate activity and the huge size of the market, the Japanese environmental indicators in demand particularly good. Japan in technology and innovation as well as the institutional framework refers to bothSuperscript living in the top 20 rankings. As the aging population and declining population, and the number of new immigrants is low compared with other countries, Japan will have to face challenges related to human capital. Japan’s strategic focus on the development of the manufacturing sector experienced a continued focus on expansion, it tends to be pragmatic evolution: 2013 “White Paper on Japanese manufacturing,” emphasizing the development of robotics, new energy vehicles, 3D printing, regenerative medicine CONTROL ENGINEERING China All Rights Reserved , 2014 edition continues this tone. By 2015, the Japanese government launched the “robot new strategy,” claims to be “the world’s first robotic applications countries, the world leader in the robotics industry to develop new era” at the same time, in the “White Paper on Japanese manufacturing,” the same year, he also stressed the big data, Internet of things, the importance of software reflects the new face of Japanese manufacturing changes, pragmatic attitude. In 2016, the government launched the “Social 5.0” strategy, aimed at promoting manufacturing industries through new technology, and even the whole society to bring about change. In addition, the government also in 2017 proposed the “industrial society (Connected Industries) join the” plan to support the Japanese manufacturing industry by connecting resources, personnel, technical, organizational and other social elements to create new value. But how many did not put forward new ideas. In the “White Paper on Japanese manufacturing” in 2018, Japan will not insist on total quality management (TQC) for the “continuous improvement” (Kaizen) on behalf of the idea, but admitted that the world has in the era of “discontinuous innovation” is no longer only the pursuit of efficiency improvements, “It is important to obtain new added value through flexible use of digital technology.” This shows that Japanese manufacturers began to face its own rate of return has been substantially lower than the level of US and European issues. China: China’s manufacturing sector in 2010 has surpassed the US as the world’s first on the scale. The total manufacturing value added in 2016 to nearly $ 30,000 one hundred million CONTROL ENGINEERING China Copyright , accounting for about a quarter of global manufacturing value added. China Intelligent Manufacturing has been growing at a faster rate. As of 2018, the sixth consecutive year China has become the world’s largest industrial robot market. In the past 20 years,China has embarked on a low-cost products to high-end products upgrade path. However, the level of modernization of different sectors of manufacturing industry significant difference, and the difference between the low-end manufacturers some outstanding manufacturers even more alarming, thus driving down the entire country readiness. In terms of manufacturing drivers, the complexity of the global ranking of economic only for the first 26. But Chinese demand environment and global trade and investment-driven aspects in particular. The top three in terms of technological innovation and human capital, there is still a need to continue to enhance the ability of labor to cultivate the skills needed for future industries, and improve the level of innovation within the enterprise. By 2015, the Chinese government put forward the “Made in China 2025” program, aimed at achieving the transformation and upgrading of China’s manufacturing industry, provide financial support for innovation in manufacturing. Relevant departments have been put forward national pilot projects to promote the development of intelligent manufacturing industry, currently published four batches list of companies, a total of 307. Also around the birth of a large number of industrial parks, incubators a large number of intelligent manufacturing enterprises. China’s manufacturing industry with intelligent being formed. SINGAPORE: Singapore has a strong performance in higher-value manufacturing sector R & D and product design, manufacturing the driving force in all indicators except sustainable resource has a good performance. According to the Economic and Commercial Counselor at the Chinese Embassy in Singapore, Singapore both in the business environment, economic freedom, innovation or talent competitiveness index are ranked in the global top five. Singapore is the most open global trade and investment, one of the most environmentally friendly country. In addition to leading the industry with upstream and downstream facilities outside the system, the Singapore government also attaches great importance to enhance labor skills and nationals of research and development technology, has invested heavily in this area, such as in clean energy and other industries, the Singapore government will pay for training personnel when working with businesses about 70% scholarship. Strong institutional framework to become a successful boost Singapore in many manufacturing fields. To have this result, thanks to Singapore in a number of industrial transformation has always been to develop future-oriented manufacturing. In the 1960s, the proportion of Singapore’s manufacturing in GDP is only about 11%, and by the very low level of education of the population, the proportion of the population uneducated As of 1970 was 53.4%, equivalent to more than half of all the people It is illiterate. The Singapore government was vigorously attract labor-intensive enterprises, the rapid construction of industrial parks, to support their transformation into a manufacturing base. But after the Singapore government worried about over-reliance on cheap labor, low value-added productionProducts, is not conducive to long-term economic growth, and therefore shift to electronics, chemicals, machinery and transport equipment manufacturing capital and technology-intensive industries in the 1980s, with Japan, France, Germany and other countries to cooperate to establish technology center, electronics and other fields of culture specialized workers. Although after the 1990s, the Singapore government in order to optimize the economic structure, the service sector will also locate another pillar for economic development. But its share of manufacturing in GDP in the years to maintain more than 20% (peaking in 2000, about 28%). From 1991 to 2001, Singapore’s total manufacturing output showed growth momentum, but employment continued to decline, by 2002 the number of practitioners in the manufacturing sector in total employment in the country accounted for 28 per cent has fallen to 19 from 10 years ago %, but its per capita GDP remained at a high level, the index ranked 12th in the world by 2019, comparable to the US. This shows that Singapore’s manufacturing sector has been in transition from low value-added labor-intensive to high value-added direction the introduction of information technology. By the end of 2017, Singapore announced a smart industrial maturity index (Singapore Smart Industry Readiness Index), designed to help manufacturing enterprises to further tap the full potential of the fourth industrial revolution. South Korea: In the past few decades, South Korea has experienced significant economic growth, today’s manufacturing power from behind the social development of agriculture 60 years of the last century has become. South Korea currently has the world’s sixth-largest manufacturing industry, the complexity of the global economy ranked fourth. South Korea in addition to the factors of production indicators of sustainable resources are performing well. Its technology and innovation indicators, particularly eye-catching, scheduled to be on the top five on the R & D expenses and per million people an average of patent applications. In 2014, South Korea proposed “manufacturing sector innovation 3.0” strategy to help SMEs establish wisdom and optimization of the production process. By 2015, the South Korean government after further complement and improve announced the embodiment of the strategy. The strategy focuses on the relationship between government and the market balance, the government’s focus on improving the business environment for SMEs to provide the support and training. To this end, Korea established in June 2015 the Government, civil cooperation “smart factory” to promote the group, actively assist SMEs to build their own actual “smart factory.” Before the arrival of the end, there is still the opportunity to interpret the report from the representative countries, we can draw the following conclusions: 1. Transition route is not the only unique solution. The transition process manufacturing system of countries in a variety of different routes will appear. Not all countries will pursue advanced manufacturing. It is important for each country to find its own differentiated positioning, carefully weigh the global economy and its own characteristics, to develop a unique strategy. National Advanced Manufacturing Technology leading countries with a higher level of manufacturing, providing cheap labor can also have a share, the remaining countries will have to try to avoid the embarrassing situation of two extrusion. 2. Improve yet reached the end of the road, overtaking opportunity still exists. All countries have room for improvement. We are at the starting line for manufacturing transformation, there is no passing the winning country, not to mention the potential to play 4.0 Industrial exhausted. Each country-specific industrial activities in the future will be challenged by different production paradigm. With the emergence of new industries, countries could turn to overtake the existence of. However, only a few countries can seize this rare opportunity. 3. manufacturing industries need to continue to invest at the national level, collaboration is the key to all walks of life. States wishing to participate in the transformation contest manufacturing industry needs to invest in the environment, and to develop strategies to seize the opportunity, but some industry conditions can not be created in the isolated environment. We need to accelerate the transition rate from innovative ways of cooperation between government and the public and industry, academia and society.