The new industrial revolution gathering surge. In recent years, many countries have put forward their national development strategies and industrial restructuring and upgrading name, such as Germany called Industry 4.0, China called intelligent manufacturing. But for this to spread around the world, the basic content and features to intelligence identified a new industrial revolution, it has been mixed, have wording. About smart manufacturing, but also a lot of definitions, each source. Without a clear understanding and accurate grasp of the basic features of the new industrial revolution / intelligent manufacturing, then it is difficult to really effectively promote the basic construction of a new industrial revolution, making it difficult for intelligent manufacturing enterprise landing. The author reviews the new industrial revolution connotation, summarized its five basic features: ① “human wisdom” turn “wit”; ② the popularity of low-cost sensors; ③ software-defined manufacturing; ④ real integration of the two (software loop); ⑤ wide range of optimal allocation of manufacturing resources. The following description separately. 1 “human wisdom” turn “witty” human knowledge continue to enter the software, silicon-based knowledge to support knowledge-based to a knowledge-based steering carbon-based, digital productivity surge. Intelligent Manufacturing is not an inscrutable, incomprehensible terminology. In layman’s terms, the so-called Intelligent Manufacturing is a “man wit intellectual change” process – that is human intelligence (referred to as “human intelligence”) extracted from tacit knowledge to explicit knowledge, modeled, arithmetic processing, and then the various models of knowledge (mechanism model data analysis model, etc.) of the embedded software, embedded software, chip embedded in a box / module, then insert the cassette / module to the physical device, thereby imparting a certain machine autonomy, the machine has a certain degree of “intelligence” (referred to as “wit”), we will process known as “empowerment.” Thus, the machine has a certain ability to think in human software support, when better software algorithms, chip count, the stronger the force, the more the industrial data, the higher the “witty” degree. So, when the “wit” to a certain extent, they have a partial or complete alternative to the human body / brain function. When the human body / brain left the scene of the loop operating system, the machine unattended, it can still work as independent as people in the scene, even work better, better optimize the manufacturing resources configuration. As shown in Figure 1.
FIG. 1 “human wisdom” turn “Wit” process
that the “human wisdom” turn “Wit” manufacturing activities, the author called intelligent manufacturing. FromThe foregoing description of the process is not difficult to see that the key enabling elements, is industrial software. Software industry’s top industrialized product. It encapsulates the industrial technology / knowledge to build a system of automatic data flow rules, creating a brain and nerve of the machine, so the machine becomes more intelligent, you can always adjust the function. Industrial Software Description, integration, simulation, acceleration, amplification, optimization, traditional innovative manufacturing processes, the formation of a new industrial intelligent mode – defining manufacturing software. The first, second industrial revolution, greatly emancipated the human body. Third industrial revolution, greatly emancipated the human brain. The liberation of the human brain works is that a large number of “human intelligence” into the software. Therefore, Control Engineering Copyright , R & D and management tools digitizing software that allows product development and management undergone revolutionary change, a new concept of digital twins and data analysis models emerging; at the same time, the product itself digitizing software allows the machine has revolutionized the change. 40 years ago machines, in addition to the power lines, there is little conductors appear on the device. In today’s equipment, there have been a large number of wires that are connected to some of the boxes on the machine, these inside the box, there are a large number of multi-layer circuit boards and chips, chips which are running software, software which accommodates a large number of “human wisdom” and that these “human wisdom” have been transformed into a “witty.” If you can put more “human wisdom” to “witty”, so that the traditional machine into “intelligent machine”, if able to develop more self-controlled industrial software, if industrial technology / knowledge of the software can be more , then it is possible to put a lot of knowledge-based technicians freed from repetitive work out, let the machine to generate products, so that technical staff freed to produce knowledge and more easily manage the machine, this can be achieved and the machine again division of labor, industrial technology / knowledge accumulation and continued sustainable inheritance, allow enterprises to achieve sustainable, high-quality development. The popularity of low-cost sensors 2 sensors added “features” for the machine, which greatly enhanced the machine state environmental awareness, physical space accelerated digitization of information. There is no “presence awareness” machine can not become intelligent machines (even to achieve a “situational awareness”, but also along with other conditions can be achieved). To achieve the “situational awareness”, you need a variety of “sensing devices.” Whether it is intelligent manufacturing, industry 4.0, or Internet of Things industry, all kinds of sensors are inseparable.Defined by the sensor and to regulate GB GB7665-87: “feel can be predetermined is measured and converted into an electrical signal or output devices may be used according to certain rules, typically by a conversion element and a sensitive element composed of.” Wherein “available output signal” refers to the ease of processing, ease of use of the electrical signal transmission. Sensors are generally sensitive element consists of three parts, the conversion element and the switching circuit. Sensitive element, is “a substance having a sensing function” as a “sensing device,” “effector substances.” Therefore, Control Engineering Copyright , there is a sensor developed from the “substance having a sensing function” and “effect substance.” No scientific effect (physical effects, chemical effects, etc.) material as an induction device, there is no presence sensor. Common thermal sensors sensors, light sensors, temperature-sensitive sensor, a force sensor, gas sensors, humidity sensors, acoustic sensors, magnetic sensors, taste sensitive sensor, sensitive sensor placed total of 10 categories. Wide range of the sensor shown in FIG.
FIG variety 2 sensor (picture from the network)
developed practice in the industry in recent years, the Internet / industrial proof of things, high-performance equipment, low-cost sensors, industrial network, the Internet, data acquisition and industrialized analysis of the combination of technology, can effectively improve the efficiency and effectiveness of existing industries, create new technologies, new models and new formats. One of the key factors which is a low-cost sensors. In recent years, sensor technology has made leaps and bounds, the new sensor after another, continue to reduce costs, and improve performance, has become the norm sensor industry research and development. It is precisely because the sensor continuously reduce costs, down the line can cost large-scale deployment of large-scale application of the sensor in order to become the choice of business. GE companies can learn a lot of experience in the application of the sensor. Back in 2005, GE’s Aircraft Engines reorganized as GE Aviation, began to change the business model. The company’s original business aircraft engine production only, then by installing a large number of sensors on the aircraft, real-time acquisition of various parameters of the aircraft, to provide operation and maintenance management for airlines through big data analysis techniques, the ability to ensure operational excellence and financial planning package solutions, as well as providing security control, navigation and other forecasting services for the enterprises to produce good economic benefits. Italian aviation, for example, GEAfter hundreds of sensors installed on each aircraft they can collect real-time functioning, such as engine temperature and fuel consumption of a lot of data, the use of GE’s software to analyze massive, accurately give the desired control method, only this one, Alitalia 145 aircraft a year to save $ 15 million in fuel costs. These data can also be predicted in advance possible engine failure, and make proactive preventive maintenance to avoid because of mechanical failures caused by flight delays, increased costs, and even greater security incidents. January 2013, GE battery in a New York production company in total installed more than 10,000 sensors for monitoring temperature during production, energy consumption and air pressure data, and factory managers can obtain these data through the iPad, so production supervision, effectively optimize the allocation of production resources. The popularity of low-cost sensors, undoubtedly lowered the threshold of a huge cost for the new industrial revolution, set up the Rainbow Bridge smooth arrival of the digital space from physical space, time and space to make a steady stream of information turned into a bit stream. 3 software-defined software into machine manufacturing industry in the brain, the algorithm / operator force a sharp increase in software-defined time and space performance materials / parts / systems. Although the software in many universities and research institutes have been studied as a relatively independent professional, but the authors argue that research alone software easily detached from the hardware infrastructure software running easily out of physical devices to data and decision-making software controlled. Because the software has never been merely a “calculated” attribute of artifacts, but also has a more important “control” attribute objects. As a software data, information, knowledge of highly converged digital carrier, it must survive, running in the chip. Software and silicon to form a symbiotic relationship. Chip functionality and performance of software running speed constraints and “capacity” can be defined, and the program continues to instruction software driver chip FET gates and made “ON” “OFF” operation, the software from birth the date on the “quasi-CPS” feature has driven chip. The relationship between the software and the chip is subtle and changing adjustment. In the past, the software must adapt chip to chip-based constraints to the development of software; software today tend to run better, to maximize software performance chip design, which is based on software needs to develop chips. First, the chip has a software “to go to, computing, storage” role, the software has to die, “FuValue, enabling, Fu Chi ‘respective merits of the role of software and integrated chip matched together in order to play the best results. Software and chip together form a fusion, is a “quasi CPS”, is hard to say who. ” definitions. “who but the two things are clear: software is a powerful chip count forces the role of objects, no chip count powerful force support, software difficult to play against a physical entity,” the role of enabling / Fu Chi “; inherent in the software man-made system of human knowledge is “smart,” the source, the logic guiding the various models and algorithms no knowledge of the software, chip count powerful force also lost useless, the same can not form a physical entity, “enabling / Fu Chi” effect. Secondly, the software and the data generated by the decision-making precise controlling effect on the physical device. in the CPU gate FET, for example, in software digital command driven, a high level (oN / oN current) is 1 , the low level (oFF / oFF current) is zero, thus constantly to speed “on / off” state to be calculated on the FET, the gate output a final set of group A “1/0” string of a string of binary bits of data calculated after the formation of the arrangement, the bits of data can be used to drive a display device (e.g., various display screens), it may also be used to drive the physical device in the controller and let the machine or product precise operation, thus reflecting the software early in the software used only for controlling chip peripherals, physical devices on the computer, an external device hardware range includes only some of the display, printing, software running results only need to be displayed on the screen hardware, data may be displayed, may be of curves and surfaces, may be images or sounds, but these calculations are not required to form a “closed loop”, as long as it could help people make decisions on it. today, has been extended to all visible hardware computer coupled to industrial equipment, the result is to run the software used to drive the physical device is to form a “closed loop” (see next section on) the physical devices, i.e., each minute physical device actions are perceived, by the sensor to be fed back to the software, the software “this moment” of the physical device according to the Working scene is calculated, according to the mechanism for decision or inference rules embedded model, the physical device is given next optimization, most accurate operation command. Thus Copyright Control Engineering , and the chip software [ 123] , the relationship between industrial equipment and real-time becomes tight,And it is rich and colorful. Software operation from the driving chip, “software chip” drive running computer peripherals, the development of “software chip” physical device driver Industrial and Digital twin accurate operation thereof, so that the software generates a strong physical devices “definitions” effect. Software-defined, now has become a phenomenon of manufacturing technology: software not only defines the part that defines the material, but also define the product, the definition of the tooling, the definition of the process, the definition of the assembly, the production line is defined, the definition of the production process defines the supply chain, product usage scenarios defined, the definition of the product maintenance and upgrades, the definition of customer, sales are defined, the definition of the enterprise, defines everything that can be defined. 4 real integration of the two (software loop) bits embrace atom, join the IT OT, cyber physical integration, industrial software digital command given precise manipulation of physical devices across time and space. “Trisomy intelligent revolution” and “smart three-body model” in the two big cycles gives us a good inspiration: It should go up from the basic role of knowledge generation and knowledge flows of new understanding of software, know today why the software is “closed loop “of. → physical entity consciousness human body → → digital virtual physical entities this big cycle has clearly told us that in the past few hundred thousand years of human interaction with the physical world in the process, accumulated a great deal of understanding of the world and transform the world of knowledge. When two bodies from the following (physical entity, conscious human) interaction evolved to three-body interaction, “two-body single interface,” the monotonous situation has undergone tremendous change, turned into a complicated situation, “three-body three interface”. Physical entity → awareness → digital virtual human body → physical entity of a cycle, in fact, is particularly important in a knowledge cycle, both software form a closed loop, the only way from conventional software to the software industry, but also the origin of software-defined connotation. Dr. perspective combined with information technology executive committee An Xiaopeng hundred people will be put forward in “the perspective of the software industry in the future,” a paper, the author gives the three-body model of intelligent knowledge large circulation flow and the realization of software enabling a closed-loop logic can be based on: run → physical world laws governing the operation of the (mapped to human consciousness activities) → → model law modeled algorithmically → algorithm coding (digital dummy into the body) → source software → software optimization of the physical world works (and human behavior), as 3 shown in FIG. FIG. 3 from the three-body model to the software smart definition model
in the logic loop of FIG. 3, the human interaction with the physical world longKnowledge accumulated to sort out and induction, to find laws governing the operation of the physical world (including materials, equipment, etc.), and then this knowledge digital, establish rule-bit data automatically flows based industrial software, then bit data to automatically flow, the equipped with knowledge, delivered to wherever they are needed, thus correct, ubiquitous knowledge to guide the machine or person, under the system of external uncertainty, complexity of work scenarios and given resource constraints, through continuous repeat “state-aware, real-time analysis, autonomous decision-making, precise execution, to enhance learning,” the intelligence process, the correct data to the correct version, at the right time, to the right people and machines, and therefore the time to do things Yes, time to do good, or even better the next time. (The author 1997 Translation Boeing DCAC / MRM project information, including “four right”: right data, right version, right time, right person, compiled from its original intent) to enter the digital virtual body of human knowledge, to digital voids basic meaning as defined software, software with emphasis today is different from traditional software “closed loop” characterized – in software-defined bit data stream precisely control the morphology and microstructure of the material, equipment, smart manufacturing the core content. Today’s software is no longer just as a human aid decision-making occurs, but in an autonomous way, beyond the body / brain directly drive the physical operation of the equipment. Software loop, forming a true integration of the two, creating intelligent manufacturing / industrial Internet enabling technologies CPS (Cyber Physical Systems). In the software-defined action, the CPS can be precisely controlled and the position of atoms per atom of a material relative to one another between a position (lattice), precise control of the relative position between each of the various parts and portions of parts after molding, precise control of each running operation of machine equipment, cycle time and energy consumption and so on. This has become a new industrial revolution, the most important purpose. 5 large-scale optimal allocation of manufacturing resources based Internet industry, multi-domain rather than a single domain, rather than a wide range of small-scale optimal allocation of manufacturing resources. In November 27, 2017 the State Council issued “guidance industrial development of the Internet” “on deepening the” Internet + advanced manufacturing states: “Industrial Internet is digital, networked, intelligent new industrial revolution of the main features of critical infrastructure, accelerateIts development is conducive to accelerating the development of Intelligent Manufacturing, wider, more efficient, more accurate service to optimize production and allocation of resources, promote the transformation and upgrading of traditional industries, the birth of new technologies, new formats, new models, providing new momentum for the manufacturing power construction . “In the past 20 years, the company implemented a number of digital / information technology transformation projects, on a lot of enterprise information systems, but its role category, often” a factory one a workshop “to optimize manufacturing allocation of resources limited small scale local / of the enterprise. the need for a wide range of configuration optimization of manufacturing resources, subject to severe constraints of time, often there is no good solution. industry is to the Internet in the “wider, more efficient, more optimization precise production and service resources, “born of the new industrial network, is intelligent manufacturing floor of critical infrastructure. industry Internet Internet helps allow enterprises to break that road interactive cross between the physical world and the digital world of the unseen or touched, but the “wall”, breaking the constraints of time in the past severely constrained companies. industrial cloud platform is the initial stage of the internet industry and the basic form would gradually run enterprise development tools, core business systems, and other key equipment in the cloud, the cloud can be under the unified architecture, maximum convenience various systems Between integration, so smoothly cloud data by automatically flows between the various systems interconnected to one another to promote interoperability, so that not only can effectively improve operational efficiency, implementation of sophisticated management, can also be optimized within a wide range allocation of corporate resources, and the resulting economic benefits, improve the overall management level. now most of the industrial internet platform is mounted on a private cloud, public cloud or hybrid cloud. as more and more industrial elements into when the internet industry, the vast majority of the supply chain will also become part of the internet industry, according to a report released by IBM, under the “software-defined supply chain” environment, under the support of industry and industrial internet platform of APP, operations and ensure a minimum level of production scale cost-competitive than the previous average reduction of 90%, business operations and management costs greatly reduced by the Internet industry to join a wide range of industrial components, has made a lot of tangible results: such as Qinghai green State power company to develop the “new energy industry industrial internet platform” in Layer access data known about 3600 per second, power stations access platform 28, to achieve “unattended, few people on duty by the centralized monitoring”For power generation companies operating personnel cost savings of 40%; the company is also a gifted annual output of 300 tons of steel enterprises in Shandong implemented Thingswise industry Internet platform, annual savings of 40 million yuan; East Fang Guoxin company’s 1000 domestic refining iron blast furnace ironmaking 310 access to large data intelligent network platform, smelting reducing energy consumption 3% to 10%, 5% or more to enhance the labor productivity, reduce accidents 60%; the root of the injection molding machine for a network equipment manufacturers after the solid Shi Genyun internet platform industrial plant equipment failures “discovery – response” cycle is reduced from more than 1 hour to 15 minutes
CONTROL ENGINEERING China Copyright , 75% shorten the response time, arrival time by 50 %, and provide customers with process transparency improve customer satisfaction for more than 50%; Qujing cigarette factory Hualong-based Schindler Jupiter industrial internet platform digital cigarette factory, the effective operation rate rose from 89-96 percent, spare parts inventory occupation funds from 120 million / year dropped to 038 million / year per 1 million less than the big box with the size of the business cost 060 million / year; North wise for a company through the implementation Dairy Group Zhitong of the Internet industry, improve machine efficiency of 15%, quality tracing from the original reduced to a few hours, a 50% increase the effectiveness of quality analysis, statistical workshop inspection personnel decreased by 50%, production records 80% reduction in labor, etc. etc. a wide range of industrial coupling elements, so that enterprises have the possibility to optimize the configuration of manufacturing resources in large system level, and thereby obtain a better business management and control capabilities, a strong impetus to the company’s restructuring and upgrading. 6 Summary with intelligence the new logo of the industrial Revolution, to bring the world’s industrial transformation and upgrading an unprecedented opportunity to provide a great impetus, creating countless new technologies, new models and new formats, new industrial era also produced many of the features. according to the author of the new multinational industrial revolution several years of observation and patience to sort out, the discovery of new features many of the industrial age, one hundred one thousand , can be attributed to these five: ① “anthroposophy “turn” wit “- continue to enter the software of human knowledge, knowledge-based carrier is made of carbon-silicon-based knowledge oriented to knowledge-based, digital production Surge; ② the popularity of low-cost sensors – sensors for the machine added “features”, which greatly enhancedMachine perception, physical space information to accelerate digitization; ③ software-defined manufacturing – Industrial Software becomes the machine’s brain, the algorithm / operator force a sharp increase in software-defined time and space performance materials / parts / systems; ④ real integration of the two (software loop ) – bit embrace atom, join the IT OT, cyber physical integration, software digital command given precise manipulation of physical devices across time and space; ⑤ wide range of optimal allocation of manufacturing resources – based on the Internet industry, multi-domain rather than a single domain, rather than a wide range of small-scale optimal allocation of manufacturing resources. It does not clarify the basic characteristics of the new industrial revolution , you can not make intelligent manufacturing enterprise landing. And clearly aware of the five basic features, allowing intelligent manufacturing business into the fast lane as soon as possible.