Bitterness began. March 27, the National Bureau of Statistics data released in 20201–2 months, the national scale industrial enterprises realized a total profit of 4,107 billion yuan, down 38.3% year on year. Manufacturing industry realized a total profit of 3,006 billion yuan, down 42.7%. In some industries, the profits of manufacturing companies fell even more severe situation: ● 87.0% decline computer, communications and other electronic equipment manufacturing; ● 79.6% decline in the automotive industry; decreased 68.2% ● electrical machinery and equipment manufacturing; ● chemical raw materials and chemical products fell 66.4%; 62.3% ● drop general equipment manufacturing; ● textile decreased 59.3%; 55.1% ● decreased manufacturing equipment. In this environment, many companies are actively self-help, take the contraction of foreign strategy, actively practicing internal management capabilities. In previous articles, I have analyzed enthusiasm “new infrastructure” may be a catalytic partial industrial manufacturing companies to try the Internet. However, everything has two sides, in the context of overall contraction , too anxious for enterprises to adopt new technologies, new platforms, especially SMEs, industrial real willingness to embrace the Internet the company is still limited. “With the ERP court death, not ERP to die”, that is well known. From ERP to MES and then IoT, the new spell another round of circulating … this seems to be difficult to break the spell, so we easily forget that fact, we have the ability to change the course.
Former British Prime Minister Winston Churchill once said, never waste a crisis. The outbreak is like a watershed, so that we have ample time to look back and make us wake up and force us to reconsider the decision. Therefore, this article we will be a long time to look at the current dimension of the Internet industry: ● audible say you have a vigorous CIMS? What we decline from its splendor and learn? ● based on the present, to promote the Internet industry, what we should stop doing, start doing what it should? 01CIMS, from vast splendor to say a huge price before the question, we might look back together at CIMS have experienced vast splendor and hidden behind the huge price paid by a small number of bright countless enterprises. . Some people may think that, with no recovery disk,The only lesson of history to us is that we never learn from history. However, there are always some people touched by past experience, grow and evolve. Executive Dean to intelligent Institute of Tsinghua University Zhao when work is involved in some of the CIMS project, CIMS is to play one of the witnesses of the ebb tide and observer from the tide, the paper some facts narrated by him through and through my research. That was in the 1970s, Dr. Joseph Harrington United States first proposed the CIM (Computer IntegratedManufacturing) concept. Its meaning is the use of computer, the various business and manufacturing-related technology to integrate systems, thereby increasing the ability of enterprises to adapt to market competition. Later, based on the concept of CIM system CIMS (Computer Integrated Manufacturing System, called Fun “Simmons”), in the mid-1980s began to receive attention and large-scale implementation. Since then, CIMS concept, technology also will be made great progress. CIMS year for the definition of the Internet industry today is very similar: “CIMS is the concept of an organizational, management and operation of modern manufacturing enterprises will the traditional manufacturing technology and modern information technology, management technology, automation technology, systems engineering technology. and other organic integration, so that people of all stages of business activity in the product lifecycle-related / organization, management and technology and its three elements of information flow, logistics and organic integration of third-rate value stream and optimize operation in order to achieve faster time to market, high-quality , low power consumption, good service, clean environment, and to improve business flexibility, robustness, agility, enable enterprises to win the market competition “today, we say that the internet industry is composed of three systems: network, platform, security. Network is the foundation, is the core platform, security is guaranteed. At that time, people say CIMS concept is supported by the three parts: manufacturing, computer integrated. Manufacturing is the object, the computer is a tool, an integrated approach is the key. Today, our vision for the future of the Internet industry, change is often talked about the three “of”: networking, digital, intelligent. At that time, it is proposed modernization of CIMS features five “of”: digital, information, intelligence, integrated optimization, green.
Today, we emphasize the triple integration: horizontal integration, verticalIntegration with end to end integration. At that time, it is believed that the development of CIMS technology can be integrated optimization system from a development perspective, it is divided into three stages: information integration, process integration and inter-enterprise integration. Our “863 / CIMS theme” respectively in 1987, 1993 and 1997, started the work of these three stages. Many of our companies have introduced or build their own CIMS. Outlook is excellent, America’s future scientists believe that by 2030 80 percent of US companies will achieve CIMS. Statistics show that since 1989, “863 / CIMS topic” in China’s machinery, electronics, aviation, aerospace, automotive, petroleum, textile, light industry, metallurgy, coal, chemicals, telecommunications, garment and other industries in 210 companies implement various types of CIMS demonstration project. The result has been the acceptance of 52 enterprises CIMS project that the implementation of CIMS demonstration project to enable enterprises to significantly enhance competitiveness. Typical CIMS demonstration enterprises include: bed Shenyang Blower Factory, Beijing First Machine Tool Plant, Shanghai Textile Machinery and so on. The first “breakthrough” project, the Beijing First Machine Tool Plant, Shenyang Blower bed plant, for example.
at the time of the Beijing Machine Tool Plant is China’s largest milling machine factory, machine tool industry is the backbone of China’s large enterprises in the production of milling up to 40-60 more than 3,000 varieties, products totaled more than 400 varieties . With the reform and opening progresses, the gradual opening of the machine tool industry, foreign machine tool industry continue to impact the domestic market, so that they feel enormous pressure. 1988 meeting with foreign competition in the industry, China’s Ministry of Railways to carry out an international tender, the production of four road truck bed. Beijing a machine with France, Germany, Japan and other companies bidding, the results of a Japanese company win, win of this delivery is less than five months Beijing a machine. After the Beijing First Machine Tool Plant of CIMS application engineering implementation, greatly improving the ability to participate in international competition in the market. The plant in 1990 by the National Science and Technology Commission as CIMS application of plant cell technology in 1993 was designated as the first batch of a breakthrough enterprise. In August 1995, when the American Society of Manufacturing Engineering (SME) senior officials to Beijing to study a machine, its integrated manufacturing site marvel of efficiency. Many foreign investors during a visit to a Beijing Machine Tool Plant, the overall plant capacity and technical level is very convincing, not some foreignOrder processing center only, but also to purchase flexible manufacturing line. Shenyang Blower Works is China’s earlier use of the computer business, it produces turbine compressor, power plants and large-size high-speed axial flow turbine blower, then share in the domestic market were stable at 90%, 50% and 70% .
Shenyang Blower plant products are mostly single, small quantities. Before embodiments of CIMS, poor response, reflected in three aspects: ● one product delivery cycle is long. Shenyang Blower Works with lead times of 18 months, while foreign counterparts, manufacturers of 12 months, the product lead times are generally better than the foreign ministers of 1/3; ● Second, offer slow in the international tender, since some large products in as many as 15,000 parts, by human offer neither accurate and slow, often miss the boat; ● Third, new product development is slow, difficult to meet the needs of domestic and foreign markets. Since 1990, Shenyang Blower Works is approved by the State Science and Technology Commission as CIMS application factories, industrial output value of Shenyang Blower Works has risen every year, especially since the implementation of the 1993 breakthrough work, more significant growth. Shenyang Blower Works product delivery cycle shortened from 18 months to 10-12 months, product pricing cycle time from six weeks to two weeks, are up to international standard counterparts, new product design cycle from the past 6 months to 3 months. They believe that the implementation of CIMS project brings with advances in technology and management and significant economic benefits. While our medium-sized enterprises, for example, depicts the brilliant CIMS year. In fact, CIMS is not limited by firm size. In a typical application of CIMS in the factory, there are some small and medium enterprises. In a report for the CIMS is mentioned, STEP standard (Standardfor the Exchange of Product Model Data, product model data exchange standards), one of the sponsors Boeing’s three experts, Dr. Xiang Yu watching a group to promote the CIMS after the STEP standard research and development work that “in the study of the level of China after the United States, higher than Europe.” Today, however, CIMS has long been C2M, industry 4.0, intelligent manufacturing, industrial internet tide buried, barely mentioned . He turned to look back, when the Chinese build CIMS does have business success, but there are some losers, and the losers number greater than the number of winners. theyThey paid a huge price, but with little success. According to an objective assessment, Chinese enterprises CIMS implementation success rate of less than 10%. This is not a phenomenon unique to China. Gartner’s data show that in 2002 global ERP system failed investment was 70% failure rate of CRM system investments is 65% failure rate of e-commerce and e-government investment is 75%. This figure is essentially the short term there will be no change. 02 How are no longer accustomed to “habitual failure”? In the process of innovation and upgrading manufacturing enterprises, the results of a lot of things take years or even more than ten years of sedimentation to be shown. Sometimes managers are too impatient, hopes a new technology, new ideas or new system has been completely transformed. Sometimes managers are too self-confident and aggressive, beyond the capabilities of reality can carry. The employees have become accustomed to this situation, know what companies are doing a gust of wind, the wind stopped and so there is nothing – thus forming a very terrible “habitual failure.” Many companies try CIMS can be used to describe anticlimactic. CIMS the country came to a standstill in the application of, caused by a large one-off stride. The incident is typical of the Shanghai Textile Machinery. Shanghai Textile Machinery of CIMS application engineering, supported by the state is one of the “Plan” period of technological transformation projects. Production of automatic winder in a relatively short time in which the use of CAD systems conversion technology, automatic conversion 5700 drawing information.
Second Textile Machinery pledging to complete the automatic winder localization CONTROL ENGINEERING China Copyright , it is not a whim, but on very calm market analysis. Then automatic winder in great demand, domestic gap seriously, can bring huge economic benefits. The second half of 1994 a total of Shanghai Textile Machinery Manufacturing automatic winder 22, the output value of 29 million yuan. CIMS technology enables the use of shorter product delivery, with its leading products shorten delivery time spinning the most obvious, shortened from the previous 5 months to 3.5 months. Everything seems very correct decision, all seemingly orderly process. And finally to Shanghai Second Textile Machinery from glory to failure Control Engineering Copyright , it is also CIMS and automatic winder two major projects. The father of economics, Schumpeterian innovation There is a classicSaying: “Innovation is creative destruction.” This sentence can be understood as at least two meanings: ● successful innovation, is the old mode of production, forms of organization, destruction of resources allocation, bringing great value to innovators achieve. ● unsuccessful innovation, is the innovator of self-denial and self-destruction, a huge risk to the enterprise or even disaster. In the 1990s Shanghai Textile Machinery encounter undoubtedly belongs to the latter. CIMS engineering and automatic winders simultaneous localization of Shanghai Textile Machinery is indeed a rare historical opportunity. But it failed to give full play to the role of these two engines, in order to achieve greater breakthroughs and leaps, but from 1995 on the road to recession, no improvement. Second Textile year direct investment in the first phase of the project CIMS on more than 100 million yuan, the country invested 863 200 person-years of much science and technology experts, Textile Machinery also through the introduction of a selection of more than 100 computer applications and other types of excellent the composition of personnel responsible for the implementation of CIMS office. By 2000, a total of three CIMS engineering construction, passed the acceptance, access to a variety of awards.
According to Zhou Jin Bei of Textile Machinery former deputy chief engineer recovery disk, no amount of honor, even the most advanced production equipment and technology systems, if not combined with a reasonable and flexible production system, there is no effective logistical capabilities to ensure that there is no adapt to the ecological basis of internal and external environment, but it still is a castle in the air. Foreign experts and Textile Machinery AC made it clear that a company must have more than 10 years experience using CNC machine tools, as well as the region has more than 1,000 sets of CNC enterprise group, when the processing capacity needed to run three shifts, only FMS is necessary to use flexible manufacturing system. This practice does not know the crooked nuts has also sharply pointed out, at the time of the Second Textile Machinery manage digital basic raw materials, intermediate and finished products and other materials is still quite weak, do not have the conditions for building CIMS plant. Later objective point of view, in terms of technology, production, management and ideologically, Textile Machinery and abroad have a considerable gap. However, due to anxious, Textile Machinery from the outset focus on the purchase of equipment to quickly form a production capacity of 500 sets of automatic winder CONTROL ENGINEERING China Copyright , to take complete copy of the production system in Germany route, regardless of the basis of the situation of enterprises. For example, automatic processing networkFMS flexible manufacturing system of the cartridge housing 500 to achieve an annual output of a dedicated production line, the four double-spindle machining centers, since the system is very complex and specially developed, once the glitch occurs the whole system will not work, but also maintenance to Germany and other experts to carry out, finally we had to use a stand-alone solve production needs. After the final years of the implementation of CIMS, Textile Machinery in order to “support” CIMS high-end systems beyond their ability to bear the “luxury” exhausted all accumulated, not only failed to enhance the competitiveness of enterprises, but also broke the old system, from the inevitable the decline continues, cause for regret. Any business, should not be beyond their technical and management capacity of the border, vanity, blindly launched a new system, start a new project. Examples of Shanghai Textile Machinery is not the case, are also examples of failure not only in China. In 1994, Volkswagen invested over 20 million yuan into the CIMS production line put into operation less than 24 hours, unable to adapt to changes in the plant site declared a failure. Not only is the CIMS, new technologies, the new system uses, including ERP, MES, CRM … are accompanied by high failure rate over a period of time, that is a fact.
According to Gartner, Butler, AMR, Forrester and other institutions, the failure rate of CRM systems continue to remain high for several years. Cisco also in the research report “Internet of Things Value Tour: challenges, breakthroughs and practice (The Journey to IoT Value: Challenges, Breakthroughs, and Best Practices)” is mentioned, only 26% of the company’s scheme of things eventually the success, that is to say nearly 75 percent of the Internet of things project failed. 03 Breaking and Internet industry, the need to establish a new paradigm will not consider those wins, first consider defeat, you can know yourself carry on. Face the reality of things the high failure rate of projects, may help you better move on. Replay failed for various projects, many online articles, I wrote “Industrial Internet winter is approaching,” a text for analysis, not repeat them here. Finally, repeat a sad story. Renowned director John Woo around 2000, accepted an invitation from MGM, went to Hollywood to shoot the war movie “Windtalkers.” this movie,Then described as anticipated. The story background is the Pacific theater during World War II, was the first-line star actor Nicholas Cage, the crew news conference was held at the White House, the influence can be imagined. However, John Woo luck, too bad, the movie just getting started under heavy rain, this rain it is a full two weeks. This continuous heavy rains caused a direct contradiction between the producer and director John Woo. Producer John Woo next to the instruction: “You have two choices, one is, this two-week drama deleted directly, do not shoot; another option is to delete two weeks from behind the scenes of the script in short, the film not only can not exceed on time, on budget can not exceed. “John Woo strongly disagreed, the reason is very simple, and then delete the play is certainly not coherent story, which the director, is tantamount to drop your reputation. Talks, quarrel, and finally compromise producer, John Woo can make their own money, Bupai deleted scenes. As a result, John Woo stunned teeth dig nearly 100 million dollars a day to complete the Bupai. However, because the cause for delay in completion Bupai, “Windtalkers” in no time scheduled for the summer release of June, can only drag November. Unexpectedly, in that year, the United States “911 terrorist attacks” happened, Americans are stuck in grief among particular interest in the war drama dropped to freezing point. The film eventually thanks to lose everything. A few years later, MGM went bankrupt, John Woo also left Hollywood … look at from the perspective of industry, overall system reliability and predictability is particularly important, John Woo and deferred over budget practices, undermining the entire ecosystem of the cooperative system. Turning back to the Industrial Internet. Manufacturing business owners like a producer, and in-house implementation of the Internet industry, “John Woo” director is often the CIO. Improved systems are no borders, CIO in the pursuit of things, when the newest and coolest technology and means of artificial intelligence, agile development, etc., may forget the business goal is to fit business practice, estimates of potential risk, the pursuit of return on investment maximize ROI. Internet industry to comply with the final rule is essentially industry. Any high-tech means, do not focus on the industrial application itself Control Engineering Copyright , will forest for the trees, a lot of problems, and finally a mere formality, leading to failure. The Internet industry “golden hoe,” ultimately rely on “farmland” to assess the quality and efficiency. Manufacturing is needed is a reliable, stable, isProven mature technology. Internet industry is not just a technical iteration, it is a model innovation. The role of the Internet industry does not lie in a single production line to enhance the ability of a single plant or a single enterprise, its role is to promote a mature ecosystem of the entire manufacturing sector. CIMS good past does not solve the question of whether today’s Internet industry to find better solutions? This is what we really need to rethink and to explore the issue. —- —- written in the last epidemic affecting the manufacturing sector, more in-depth than we estimated and lasting: the first wave is affected by domestic enterprises, factories in shutdown state without orders, costs a substantial increase in pressure. Some factories because of lack of spare parts and passive fall into dysfunctional state. The second wave of consumer demand is reduced conduction to the upstream market, especially larger elasticity of demand for cars, mobile phones, home improvement and other fields, many related manufacturing companies have been seriously affected. The third wave of the epidemic influence abroad, Europe and other major regions in almost shut down. The manufacturing sector in many high-tech materials, components rely on imports, resulting in a number of countries shut down supply-strand breaks. While export orders also fell sharply, domestic enterprises can not be immune. External environment, there is always great uncertainty, whether it is John Woo encountered heavy rain even weeks, or this epidemic led to the shut down of the industrial chain, any system must do some preparation for this purpose. Although in the local scene, the Internet industry makes the Vulcan Hill Hospital 10 days of the completion of “Chinese speed” possible. But in terms of global, national large-scale, large-scale social, cross-industry collaboration among operations, the Internet industry has not fully demonstrated and take up their role in resource optimization and configuration. You may ask: “Things project failure rate of up to 75%, you also look forward to the next project will be a success?” Yes. Because the future written by us.