Metal additive manufacturing at the forefront

3D printing technology through integration with the depth of big data and artificial intelligence, is set off a full range of new technological revolution and industrial revolution, these once science fiction, has now been integrated into people’s basic necessities of life, the human mode of production will, way of life the value of ideas and so have a profound impact. Future development of the industry a new growth point countries around the world will increase material manufacturing industry as a new growth point in the future. The world’s leading McKinsey report that the additive manufacturing will be one of the 12 big decision to subvert the technology economy in 2025. US “Time” magazine will increase material production as a “Top Ten of America’s fastest growing industry,” the British “Economist” magazine that the additive manufacturing “and other digital production model together, promote the realization of the third industrial revolution” that this technology will change the future of production and lifestyle, social manufacturing. Cloud computing, big data, additive manufacturing as the core, “Industry 4.0” as a symbol of a new industrial revolution is coming, the manufacturing sector will become a national economic competitiveness of the key. Europe and other developed countries will increase material production as a national strategy, “re-industrialization”, “recapture manufacturing”, “revive the economy”, the German long-standing leadership in additive manufacturing technologies of metal parts. With the rapid rise in factor costs of land and labor, resource and environmental constraints to further enhance China’s manufacturing traditional low-cost competitive advantage continues to weaken, American and European countries are facing “re-industrialization” developing countries and low-cost industries to relocate. ” double squeeze. ” Additive manufacturing integration and network technology, new material technology, depth of the new design concept of information, will bring transformational impact of traditional manufacturing industries, technology is known as one of the landmark new round of industrial revolution. Currently, additive manufacturing has become an important technical means high-end equipment manufacturing and aerospace and other repair, initially become a product design, innovation and creative and personalized product realization means and tools in clinical diagnosis and treatment, and the range of applications continues to expand. Thus, with cloud computing, networking, big data is representative of the emerging information technologies, to develop additive manufacturing and other disruptive technology, “Made in China” to “Chinese wisdom made” into the era of choice, it is bent in Manufacturing Road speed control Engineering Copyright , China’s manufacturing industry to create new advantages, to achieve “manufacturing power dream” inevitable choice, but also the inevitable choice for the future and strive to seize the high ground of technology and industry. Metal additive manufacturing is an important advanced manufacturingOne direction of the metal additive manufacturing is at the forefront and the most potential additive manufacturing technology is an important direction of development of advanced manufacturing technology. Metal additive manufacturing technology is based on high-energy beam (laser beam / electron beam / arc, etc.) as a heat source, a metal deposited layer by layer forming member is achieved by melting the powder material or a wire. The used energy source and a different, typical metal additive manufacturing molding materials including selective laser melting (Selective Laser Melting, SLM), the electron beam constituency melting (Electron Beam Melting, EBM), laser near net shape technology (Laser Engineered Net shaping, LENS), electron beam fuse deposition modeling (electron beam Freeform Fabrication, EBFF) and arc additive manufacturing (Wire and arc additive manufacturing, WAAM).
Table 1: Comparison of the current mature typical metal additive manufacturing technology principle and characteristics, etc.
Synchronization wire feed electron beam or arc technology (CMT, MIG, TIG, etc.) and the like as a heat source, heating and melting the metallic wire, continuously bulk deposition layer is formed, forming the “near-shape ‘parts. Depositing a layer thickness of millimeter, with high forming efficiency, low manufacturing cost, the present technique is mainly used in the manufacture of large part blank, as the technology advances, by increasing or decreasing the integration of composite material, for large and complex member may to provide an alternative low-cost manufacturing. Advantage of electron beam melting GC (EBM) in its high energy density, small heat affected zone, deformation, and high productivity, which would be applied in a vacuum environment, requires special equipment and a set of vacuum systems, expensive, has application in the production of certain limitations, but the ability of high-density electron beam, scanning speed, the beam spot diameter is large, the molding accuracy less selective laser melting technology, with the development of electronic technology chamber, EBM technology will develop rapidly. The most important feature of the laser-formed heat concentration, rapid heating, rapid cooling, a small heat affected zone, thereby affecting the uniformity of the metal phase is formed. Near-net shape metal laser (the LENS) using the laser power is relatively large (2-10 kW), the large spot diameter (1-10 mm), high powder deposition efficiency (maximum 1-3 kg / hr), but low precision shaped (millimeter), which is suitable for large-scale technical characteristics of the blank member forming process, with the development of changes in material integration technology, application LENS art will further expand the . Metal Selective Laser Melting (SLM) is a metal forming techniques additive manufacturing the most mature, the most widely used technology, a low laser power (200-1000W), high-density laser energy (106-8W / cm2), the light spot small diameter (50-200), the powder deposition efficiency is low (5-30 cm3 / h), but high manufacturing precision (of 20 m), the minimum wall thickness can reach 100 m, the performance can be achieved with the member horizontal component forging, much higher than the accuracy casting process, nearly 100% density parts. Currently restricted size SLM device shaped, sized SLM mainly for the manufacture sophisticated member, but with only multi galvanometer integrated development and changes in technology, applications and SLM shaped element size will be further developed , be replaced by other technologies in the short term is unlikely. As shown, there are between 1 and the molding mass forming additive manufacturing efficiency of contradictions, for different applications, the relationship between the quality, efficiency and cost trade-offs should be integrated assessment molding, selecting the best cost-effective 3D printing process.
Figure 1: Additive manufacturing relationship forming efficiency and the shaping quality of
the field of additive manufacturing applications of 3D printing more and more broad application, from civilian consumer goods, cultural and creative products, architectural design to aerospace many structures in this area of ​​domestic research institutes have done a lot of work, have been used in, for example, many parts of the C919 aircraft carrier structures. Now China’s civil aircraft also have their own goals, Shanghai Business ready to send 80% of engine parts are used 3D printing to support R & D, GE also has a third of the company’s aircraft engine parts production with 3D printing, and has completed 30,000 a fuel injection nozzle and forming an SLM application authentication. Future variety of additive manufacturing technology will be further rapid development of more efficient lower-cost additive manufacturing process may also continue to be made, various additive manufacturing technology will compete, continue to expand their applications.
Figure 2: Structure of the complex affect additive manufacturing cost with conventional manufacturing part
2 represents the complexity of the member of FIG manufacturing costEffects, traditional machinery (such as milling burr car), the parts manufacturing cost increasing exponentially with the lift degree of complexity, and associated with the mass production, the batch is less than 3,000, the cost is very high. Effect of the complexity of the cost of parts is small additive manufacturing, additive manufacturing process is hardly affected by the complexity of the part Copyright Control Engineering , the manufacturing cost is mainly determined by the required change parts time. Thus for a single piece and small batch production of parts with complex geometry high, additive manufacturing a significant competitive advantage. Traditional manufacturing parts is limited by the complexity of the part itself, often not fully realize the function of the design priority in the design process, there are a lot of redundant structure, waste material, additive manufacturing through topology optimization, greatly improve its performance, weight reduction, high strength. Additive manufacturing can be of different colors of different materials and components needed materials distributed in the desired position, and optimal function of the priority of integrated design and manufacturing design theory, to achieve “control material control pilot-type control of color in the true sense . ” The future development of additive manufacturing of additive manufacturing is no longer simply a technical issue, but an ecological problem. Of course, at the technical level, 3D printing is still innovative, in-depth, extension and integration; and ecological level, additive manufacturing is continuing to systematic, platform, ecological direction. In the consumer level, 3D printing tend personalized, customized development; in industrial, 3D printing more emphasis on low-cost mass application of metal additive manufacturing. Innovation and development of any technology has its growth trajectory, due to the additive manufacturing in digital, lighter, better performance, better design, more conducive to modeling simulation tests, shorter production cycles and other aspects unique advantages, its development potential is undoubtedly It is very great. The future for the development of 3D printing technology, we can not be blindly optimistic, we can not sell ourselves short, the whole society synergy, “political research with gold” Six in One CONTROL ENGINEERING China Copyright , collaborative development effort, together promote the rapid development of 3D printing technology, boosting “made in China” to “Chinese wisdom made” development. Suggested that the Government should introduce relevant policies to support and nurture, guide and give full play to the government’s top-level design role CONTROL ENGINEERING China Copyright ,3D printing industry development fund set up to promote the industry chain, innovation chain, the capital chain organic integration, the formation of multiple investment pattern, the establishment of ‘lay eggs along the way’ mechanism, while the results of edge applications , key support It has the support of the industry and radiation Institute and leading enterprise; establish research projects fault tolerance mechanisms to encourage universities and research institutes powerful combination of strong, major breakthroughs in basic research and original innovation, reduce low-level redundant research, in more emphasis on results and personnel evaluation research, contributions to the community of nations; encourage social capital and government guidance funds positive interaction, to give guidance and support from the whole process of project research, incubation, marketing and other related businesses should first take action , spotted the opportunity, early layout, bold investment, competition to win the initiative in future technology development.

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