Industry 4.0 is considered in Germany is the fourth industrial revolution, mainly it refers to, in the “smart factory” use “Smart Device” will be a “smart material” production has become “smart products”, throughout the whole process of “collaboration network”, so as to enhance production efficiency, shorten the production cycle, reduce production costs. Its typical features are: integration of the revolutionary, new generation of information technology and industrialization, the depth of integration of the product, is a new mode of production, promote the traditional mass production to mass customization production shift. First, the smart factory “Industry 4.0” is actually intelligent plant information system based on the physical, and ultimately a change in manufacturing mode. (A) the concept of smart plant “Industry 4.0” evolved from the embedded system to the information of the physical system (CPS), is formed intelligent plant. As a representative of the future Intelligent Plant the fourth industrial revolution, continuing to achieve the object of Internet, data and services seamlessly connected (networking, data network and Internet services) direction. Internet of Things and services are located at the bottom and top three intelligent plant information technology infrastructure. The top level in the production planning, logistics, energy and related management ERP, SCM, CRM, etc., and product design, PLM-related technologies at the top, closely linked with the Internet service. The middle layer, and to achieve production equipment and production line control, scheduling and other information related functions through physical CPS system. From intelligent material supply, the output of smart products , through the entire product life cycle management. The lowest level is achieved control is performed, by sensing networking technology, intelligent production (FIG. 1). Layer 3 information technology infrastructure
Figure 1 intelligent plant
(b) three intelligent plant integration means to integrate computer applications at the core, is the advanced stage of information technology in manufacturing applications development, support the manufacturing process all aspects. High degree of integration can greatly improve production efficiency, effective organization of all resources, inspire enthusiasm for production of different chain of employees CONTROL ENGINEERING China Copyright , the enterprise from different individuals into a cohesive force with superior the team, the organization and management personnel, task allocation, coordination, fundamental changes in the exchange of information, design data and resource sharing to occur. “Industrial 4. 0 “by the CPS, the production equipment, sensors, embedded systems, production control systems, integration into an intelligent network, making it possible to interconnect between the devices and equipment and services and services, in order to achieve lateral, height and longitudinal end to end integration. Horizontal integration refers to a resource information sharing and resource integration between the enterprise network of collaborative manufacturing achieved through the value chain and information networks to ensure seamless cooperation among enterprises, providing real-time product and service mechanism. mainly horizontal integration collaboration on the network, mainly refers to the integration of the integrated enterprise, to inter-enterprise industry chain, multinational enterprise groups and even between enterprises based on this integrated value chain and create new business models and innovative enterprise business management system (FIG. 2).
transverse FIG intelligent factory integration
vertical integration means based manufacturing system networked intelligent plant realized decentralized production, instead of the traditional central control production processes centralized longitudinal mainly reflected in the integrated management of science within the plant [123 ], The focus on product design and manufacturing process, come to the integration process of the product life cycle, to establish an effective longitudinal production system (FIG. 3). Integration longitudinal FIG. 3 intelligent factory
end- integration means that throughout the entire value chain of integrated information systems engineering, mass customization to ensure implementation. end to end integrated value-chain oriented to-end production processes, to achieve effective integration of information in the world and the physical world .-end integration is to look intelligent manufacturing processes from the point of view, mainly reflected in the parallel manufacturing, technology products by the unit through an integrated platform, the formation of enterprise integration platform systems and platform towards the comprehensive capacity development facility (Figure 4). end of
Figure 4 intelligent plant integration
intelligent integration of three factories from over the years to focus on information sharing as the integration, process integration come to the stage of the integration phase and the continuous development of the smart move. “industry 4.0” pushed longitudinally existing high level, and the transverse end to end, including internal, A full range of integration between business cooperation between enterprises and customers as well as industry and network synergies from the integration of past ideological course of development in the manufacturing sector as well as to evaluate the effect of manufacturing industry point of view, the manufacturing sector is already getting away not open to advanced technology in support of all partiesBit integration. It can be said, based on the integration of a full range of integrated thinking is one of the new thinking in manufacturing. Moreover, the future development of the manufacturing sector is also bound to “excuse is leveraging the integration of resources,” the all-round integration is the basic idea. Second, smart devices in the future of intelligent plant, each production processes are clearly visible, highly transparent, orderly and efficient manner throughout the plant operation. In the “Industry 4.0” automation equipment in the original control functions on the basis of certain additional new features, it can achieve product life cycle management, security, traceability and other intelligent energy saving requirements. These new features added to the production equipment means by arranging the production line a number of sensors, so that the device has a perception, The sensed information is transmitted to a cloud computing data center through a wireless network, analysis and decision through a large data further such that the automation device has a self-regulation intelligent features, enabling intelligent devices. In “Industrial 4.0”, in the production lines, production equipment equipped with sensors, real-time data capture, and then connect to the Internet via a wireless communication, transmission of data, real-time monitoring of production itself. Enterprise information system with data sensing and control apparatus fused to form a layer information of a physical system (the CPS), so that the data transmitted producing cloud computing data center for storage, analysis, and decision making in turn is formed to guide the operation of the device. Intelligent devices directly determines the “Industry 4.0” intelligent required production levels. Production efficiency is the problem manufacturers will first consider. In terms of the specific production processes, “Industry 4.0” mean for businesses is that it is able to produce a variety of resources, including production equipment, factory workers, business management systems and production facilities form a closed loop network, and then through the system of things service applications, to achieve throughout the value chain laterally throughout the network of intelligent products and systems, digital links and vertical integration of end to end, thereby increasing productivity, and ultimately intelligent factory. Lateral connections through the intelligent factory-made systems on the dispersion value of the network, will be in product development, marketing, logistics, process production services, with the aid monitoring software and network communication, according to the latest situation, flexible, real-time adjustment production process, rather than full compliance with the plan for months or years ago. “Industry 4.0” devices connected by a different CPS systems to interact with the data, so that the plant internal, external form a whole. This kind of “integration” in fact, is to achieve production of “decentralized”. In the “Industry 4.0”, the production mode from “controlled by a centralized control center to enhance decentralized” into production after “decentralization” will become more flexible way than automated assembly line. The main features of pipeline operations are: transfer of material through the pipeline, operating workers on fixed stations, constantly repeating a simple operation of fixing. Advantage of avoiding the operation of workers walking back and forth in the workshop, changing tools and other labor sectors, thereby significantly improving efficiency (Figure 5).
FIG. 5 and FIG Production Production scene evolution
With PLC (Programmable Logic Controller, programmable logic controllers) of emergence and popularity, automation technology has been a major breakthrough. Some PLC logic associated with such complex operations can be done automatically by the device. Meanwhile, the development of CNC technology, so that the number of complex parts to complete the processing according to the drawing work on the machine. In addition, the use of robots and other industrial robotics, also makes simple repetitive fixing operation becomes possible alternative operation of the workers. Therefore, on the assembly line, through decomposition, normalized by the movements and operations can easily be accomplished using an automatic machine. That is,
Control Engineering Copyright , the pipeline be easily automated. Over the past 30 years is the fastest growing globalization period, the transfer of industries in developed countries by transferring a large number of labor-intensive industries to lower labor costs in developing countries. For a large number of labor-intensive industries, a higher level of automation of the overall cost of the pipeline is often higher than the low level of automation of production lines. However, automated assembly line also has its drawbacks. Not flexible production can not meet the customization, and low repeatability, relatively complex, requires a strong perception operation is more suitable to do manually. To better meet individual needs, improve production line of flexible manufacturing is a long-term goal. “4.0 industrial” production of dynamic configuration described in the report mainly refers to a robot in operation (station) to access all the relevant information in real time via a network, and according to the information content, autonomous switching production and replacement materials production, to adjust most match mode of production operations. Dynamic configuration mode of production can be achieved for each customer, each different product designs, parts structure, product orders, production planning, manufacturing, logistics and distribution, put an end to the wholeWaste a link in the chain. Different from the traditional mode of production, dynamic configuration of production before production, or production process, are able to change the original design at any time. For example, the current production is mainly automobile production line manner in accordance with the pre-designed process. Although there are some mixed mode of production, but the production process must be carried out on the production line by the numerous mechanical composition, it will not achieve the diversification of product design. Management of these production lines MES (Manufacturing Execution System) product line was supposed to bring more flexibility, but subject to a number of mechanical hardware constraints constitute the production line, can not play a more functional role is extremely limited (Figure 6). FIG. 6 a conventional automobile production in the exact order of the production process
Meanwhile, the different workers operating the production line located in each workshop, they will not control the entire production process, so it can only play in an the role of fixed work. As a result, it is difficult to meet customer needs in real time. “Industry 4.0” smart plant depicted, the fixed line concept disappeared, taking a modular production may be dynamically re-configured organic. For example, the production modules may be regarded as a “physical system information” car being capable of self-assembly between the shuttle production module, receiving the required assembly operations. Which, if production, parts supply bottleneck link, the timely dispatch of other models or parts of productive resources, to continue production. That is
Copyright Control Engineering , select the appropriate model for each production module autonomy, dynamic assembly operations. In this dynamic configuration mode of production, we can play a MES originally integrated management capabilities to manage dynamic design, assembly, testing the entire production process, both to ensure the efficient operation of production equipment, but also the production of a wide diversification (FIG. 7). Figure 7 dynamically configurable production processes
Third, intelligent materials “Industry 4.0” era, in the smart factory, CRM (Customer Relationship Management, Customer Relationship Management), PDM (Product Data Management, Product Data Management), SCM (supply chain management, supply chain management) And other software management systems probably will be interconnected. By then, the moment after receiving customer orders, the factory will automatically procurement of raw materials or components to suppliers of raw materials or components immediately. After the arrival of raw materials or components, data will be given, “This is so and so to a certain customer production process of certain products in the raw materials or components”, the “raw materials or components” with information. Raw materials or components with the information means to have their own purpose or destination, become a “smart material.” If, in the production process, raw materials or components once when the error distribution to other production lines, it will be through the “dialogue” with the production equipment, the right of return to their own production line; if the raw material between the production machine is not enough Similarly, production machines may be carried out “representations” to line systems, to increase the number of parts or materials (FIG. 8). After
Figure 8 intelligent materials with a two-dimensional code (of the shooting in Sofia custom furniture factory)
In the end, even the raw materials or components embedded into the product, since it holds the information flow path, will very easy to implement tracking tracing (Figure 9).
Figure 9 Smart Components with a two-dimensional code
According to media reports, SAP senior vice president of global, Mr. Coleman, president of global R & D network in 2014 China Economic Information Industry annual conference on the theme “SAP China 4.0 industrial and things of the Road “speech. Coleman believes in the “Industry 4.0”, all things have become digitized. Each product has its own independent ID, companies can break through the restrictions of geographical space, remote operation and services. Based on forecasts of big data, companies can predict based on the results, tailored to provide more services in advance or delayed, further reducing risk and cost. In the production process, companies can achieve better energy management and flexible production. Fourth, the growing number of smart product facts show that information technology, especially the development of Internet technology and applications with unprecedented breadth and depth, accelerating profound changes in production, manufacturing model manufacturing. Followed by a change in the properties of the product itself (Figure 10).
FIG 10 intelligent products
current vehicle may no longer be a “mechanical”, is “a by the electronic sensor, an antenna, a receiver, a display device and so many of the component parts of the electronicProduct “(Figure 11).
Figure 11 products intelligent evolution
With the Internet, especially the development of mobile Internet, the car began to engage with more of the peripheral devices, peripheral systems, transmission of information, sharing of information. through networking and intelligent transportation systems (ITS), you can obtain real-time traffic information, gas stations and road information; by receiving satellite navigation, positioning for rich information services; to achieve a more scalable smart phones, tablet PCs and other peripheral devices application car has an “electronic products” to further transform from a “network of networks.” car of the future with the ability to network interconnection, may become a decisive factor in the car in a competitive market can be said that information technology in economic and social development is playing an increasingly important role in traditional communications systems, aircraft control systems, automotive electronics, home appliances, weapons and equipment, electronic toys, and other embedded systems are widely represented physical presence in all areas of social life. and with them the computing, networking and control technology development, And future needs of the manufacturing sector to improve, both from a physical product constantly evolved into “electronic” or “network products” (Figure 12).
significance of changes in product Figure 12
5, the network coordinated by the interconnection, cloud computing, large data these new Internet technologies, and automated prior art combination, the production process to achieve cooperation between the workers and the fusion device between the production equipment and facilities in the longitudinal direction system, the entire interior of the plant banded together, forming a physical information system, can cooperate with each other, can respond to, to carry out the manufacturing of personalized, you can adjust the productivity of the product, you can also adjust how much use of resources, the size, the most economical way of using resources. “industry 4.0 “intelligent manufacturing, focusing on intelligent production systems and processes, as well as a distributed network of production facilities, its core is applied throughout the industrial production process in the
CONTROL ENGINEERING China Copyright by physical system information (the CPS), using the technique of things, Software technology and communication technology to enhance information management and service, to improve control of the production process in order to achieve the development, production, manufacturing processes and industrial control full range of information covering the full control of a variety of information to ensure that all manufacturing sectors are can in the mostExcellent state. In order to guide the transition to the intelligent manufacturing. Collaboration within the plant for a manufacturing enterprise, its internal information is based on manufacturing as the core, including the various elements of production and related production management, logistics management, quality management, equipment management, personnel management and working hours. The traditional manufacturing management is the single workshop / factory for the management unit, management is focused on the production, range management is internal manufacturing. However, with advances in information technology, many manufacturing enterprises in different stages of development, according to the needs of different stages of management, continue to develop a different system, and gradually the use of in-house, such as inventory management systems, production management systems , quality management systems, product lifecycle management systems, supply management systems. Different systems for different functions, some systems using systems developed by different vendors or composition. As the company grows, requiring interoperability between the different elements of production management, in order to avoid information silos in the manufacturing process, the need for interfaces and compatibility between the various systems of higher and higher, that is, between the various systems the internal coordination more important. For example, for the use of two separate systems to manage production and inventory, then, before the implementation of the production, production management systems need to control the supply of material resources as well as the implementation of a particular production plan, and if the inventory management system and production management system is relatively independent, will not be able to achieve synergy, material information needed for production can not be back to the inventory system, inventory system can not get the information requirements needed for the production of the material. After completion of the production, the production system aggregates production results and the actual material usage information, but because of production management systems and inventory management system uses a different independent systems, inventory management systems do not get real-time material usage information, resulting in actual inventory and the results of the system is not consistent. To compensate for fault information and had to be from between the inventory management system and production management system manual data import and export, often artificial periodic inventory in order to achieve matching usage and inventory information. With the requirement for agility and Lean Manufacturing continuous improvement of manufacturing, importing and exporting by artificial information can not meet the information needs of the manufacturing industry, which requires collaboration between different network systems, so that real-time information transfer and sharing . Future collaboration between manufacturing plants, each plant is a separate mode of operation, each plant has run independentlyThe production management system, or with a production management system to manage the operation of all plants. But with the development of enterprises, enterprises have set up production bases and a number of different plants, factories often need to schedule each other, rational use of manpower, equipment, materials and other resources, enterprise information flow between each plant more to the more real-time requirements higher and higher, while the amount of data required for each facility and speed of execution are also increasing. This requires different plants synergy between the network can do, to ensure real-time transfer and sharing of information (FIG. 13). FIG synergy between the network 13 and plant factory
In the Internet age globalization and synergistic cooperation not only within the organization, and often involve the chain, cooperation between the downstream tissue. On the one hand, the network collaboration, consumers and manufacturing companies jointly design and product development to meet the customization needs; on the other hand, through the collaborative network, configure the production of raw materials, capital, equipment and other resources, organizational dynamics of manufacturing. Shorten product development cycles, to meet the different market needs. Representative production system in conjunction with horizontal integration in the “Industry 4.0”, which is an integration of the whole industry chain. Conventional production plant, the production of products or components just a separate process, without any contact between, no further control logic. Collaborative network outside the manufacturing plant makes a according to their production capacity and production schedule, only a part of a production, production logistics outside, outside the plant, including sales throughout the whole industry chain can be linked. Thus, to achieve horizontal integration of the industry value chain. Globalization makes the division of production factors to accelerate the flow, market trends and the demand for personalized products manufacturing plant has put forward higher requirements for response time and flexible production capacity. “Industry 4.0” era, through the combination of intelligent production based on various elements of information technology machinery, knowledge, and skills of management, from before the start of manufacturing, it is in accordance with the delivery time, production quantity, priority, factory existing resources (personnel, equipment, materials) of limited production capacity, develop a scientific automatic production plan. Thus, increase productivity and achieve a substantial decline in production costs, while achieving product diversity and shorten the development cycle of new products, and ultimately to achieve full optimization of plant operations change. Intelligent industrial production and the Internet is actually important, “Industry 4.0” eraOne of the symbols – in intelligent plant, using a smart device, the smart material produced as intelligent products, throughout the entire process to a synergistic network (FIG. 14).
Figure 14 Relationship between the intelligent manufacturing and industrial Internet